Izvestiya of Saratov University.

Philosophy. Psychology. Pedagogy

ISSN 1819-7671 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1948 (Online)

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Skepticism: Historical and logical forms and perspectives

Maslov Vadim Mikhailovich, Nizhny Novgorod State University. NI Lobachevsky

Introduction. The permanent relevance of skepticism is due to its ancestral connection with philosophy. The problematic nature of the definition of «skepticism» in the conditions of post-non-classical ambiguity of modern social development determines the immediate relevance of the analysis of skepticism. The complexity and novelty of the goal determine the choice of the historical and logical method of research and the emphasis on its logical component. Theoretical analysis. A consistent analysis identifies three main historical and logical forms of philosophical skepticism: absolute, partial and methodological. Absolute skepticism is a consequence of uncompromising acceptance of agnosticism (Pyrrhon). Absolute skepticism, relativism and dogmatism exhaust the question of the possibility of philosophy. Absolute skepticism, which is self-destructing, cannot serve as the basis for life. Acceptance of agnosticism and finding reliable knowledge in the world around a person are the essence of «partial skepticism» (Sextus Empiricus). The reliable knowledge necessary for him or her is open to dogmatism (I. Kant). The quality of critical developments of skepticism, on the one hand, can strengthen the position of relativism and contribute to the growth of doubt in the world, on the other hand, leads to the formation of «methodological skepticism» – auxiliary tools for criticizing someone else and asserting one’s point of view (scientific skepticism). Conclusion. In the modern world, the importance of positively balanced and maximally justified partial skepticism is growing, the specifics of which is consonant with the emerging post-non-classical rationality.

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