Izvestiya of Saratov University.

Philosophy. Psychology. Pedagogy

ISSN 1819-7671 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1948 (Online)


Full text:
(downloads: 32)
Language: 
Russian
Heading: 
Article type: 
Article
UDC: 
1:141

Transcendental Subject, Spirit and Identity: from I. Kant to C. G. Jung

Autors: 
Mozzhilin Sergey Ivanovich, Saratov State University
Abstract: 

The aim of the work is to identify factors influencing the philosophical views of I. Kant on the formation of the psychoanalytic concept of C. G. Jung. The methods of explication, comparison and hermeneutic analysis are used. The central place is given to the study of the influence of I. Kant’s thoughts on the transcendental subject of thought and the human self, on the psychological and philosophical reflection of consciousness and unconscious of C. G. Jung. Moreover, the study focuses on the ideas of I. Kant, which C. G. Jung used in his psychoanalytic theory. As one of them, the author emphasizes the idea of I. Kant on the transcendental subject of thought = x, which found a place not only in the psychoanalytic theory of C. G. Jung, but also in his psychoanalytic practice. At the same time, the work postulates the futility of I. Kant’s position on the self-conditioning of consciousness for science exploring the nature and essence of consciousness. Therefore, preference is given to psychoanalytic concepts which consider the conditionality of consciousness by the unconscious. In this regard, the proposed study focuses on the statements of C. G. Jung on the meaning of “self” as the basic symbol of the collective unconscious, transforming the energy of the unconscious into forms rationalized by consciousness. At the same time, attention is focused on the significant differences between the semantic meaning of the concept of “self” in the psychoanalytic concept of C. G. Jung and the Kantian, self-contemplating, incomprehensible self. And also the differences between the psychoanalytic concepts of Z. Freud and C. G. Jung, in the aspect of their understanding the nature and essence of the unconscious censor of consciousness, and related notions of spirits and gods are considered. At the same time, the logic of the study allows us to conclude that psychoanalysis, although it did not solve the problem of the essence of the subject, nevertheless proposed a number of positive solutions to the problem of the causes of self-reflection, revealing its conditionality by the symbols of the unconscious.

Reference: 

1. Kant I. Traume des Geistgebers, erklart durch die Traume der Metaphysik. Frankfurt am Main. 1977. 60 S. (Russ. ed.: Kant I. Grezy duhovidtsa: poyasnennie grezamy metafi ziky. Kant I. Soch.: in 6 vol. Moscow, Mysl. Publ., 1964, vol. 2. 531 p.).
2. Balanovskiy V. V. Kantian trail in the C. G. Jung’s conception: For what to search? Where to search? Voprosy Filosofi i, 2015, no. 1, pp. 150–157 (in Russian).
3. Tibetan Book of Great Liberation: Editor W. Y. EvansWentz, Contributor C. G. Jung. London, Oxford University Press, 1954. 358 p. (Russ. ed.: Jung C. G. Psihologicheskii kommentarii k «Tibetskoi knige Velikogo Osvobojdeniya». In: Jung C. G. O psikhologii vostochnykh religiy i fi losofi i. Moscow, Medium Publ., 1994, рр. 91–149).
4. Kant I. The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God. In: Theoretical Philosophy 1755–1770, ed. D. Walford and R. Meerbote. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 107–201 (Russ. ed.: Kant I. Edinstvenno vozmozhnoe osnovanie dlya dokazatel’stv bytiya boga. In: Kant I. Soch.: in 6 t. Moscow, Mysl' Publ., 1963, vol. 1. 531 p.).
5. Tetyuev L. I. I. Kant and determination of the Subject of Transcendental Theology [Kant and the Defi nition of the Subject of Transcendental Theology]. In: Aktual’nye problemy social’no-gumanitarnyh nauk i obrazovaniya: sushchnost’, koncepcii, perspektivy: materialy VII Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. [Actual problems of social and humanitarian Sciences and education: essence, concepts, prospects: collection of materials VII Int. sci. conf.]. Saratov, Saratovskiy istochnik Publ., 2019, pp. 882–887 (in Russian).
6. Kant I. Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 1999. 785 p. (Russ. ed.: Kant I. Kritika chistogo razuma. In: Kant I. Soch.: v 6 t. Moscow, Mysl' Publ., 1964, vol. 3. 510 p.).
7. Forgione L. Kant, ‘I think’, and the problem of SelfKnowledge. In: Transtsendental’nyy povorot v sovremennoy filosofii : transtsendental’naya metafizika, epistemologiya i fi losofi ya nauki, teologiya i fi losofi ya soznaniya: sb. tez. mezhdunar. nauch. seminara (Moskva, 18–20 aprelya 2019 g.) [Transcendental Turn in Contemporary Philosophy. Transcendental Metaphysics, Epistemology and Philosophy of Science, Transcendental Theology and Theory of Consciousness: Abstract of the International Woorkshop]. Ans. eds. S. L. Katrechenko, A. A. Shiyan. Moscow, Izd-vo GAUGN-Press, Fond TsGI, 2019, pp. 143–159 (in Russian).
8. Jung C. G. The Psychology of the Transference. New York, Routledge, 1983. 216 p. (Russ. ed.: Jung C. G. Psikhologiya perenosa. Moscow, Refl -buk, Kiev, Vakler, 1997. 304 p.).
9. Tibetan Book of the Dead. Ed. W. Y. Evans-Wentz, Contributor C. G. Jung. London, Oxford University Press, 1975. 249 p. (Russ. ed.: Jung C. G. Psihologicheskii kommentarii k “Bardo Thodol”. In: Jung C. G. O psikhologii vostochnykh religiy i fi losofi i. Moscow, Medium Publ., 1994, рр. 64–91).
10. Jung C. G., Wilhelm R. Das Geheimnis der Goldenen Blute – ein chinesisches Lebensbuch. Ubersetzt und erlautert von Richard Wilhelm, mit einem europaischen Kommentar Jung C.G. Zurich, 1946.150 S. (Russ. ed.: Jung C. G. Kommentariy k “Tayne Zolotogo Tsvetka”. In: Jung C. G. O psikhologi vostochnykh religiy i fi losofi i. Moscow, Medium Publ., 1994, рр. 149–223).
11. Malkina S. M. Kant’s Tribunal of Reason and problem of Metaphysics. Historical, Philosophical, Political and Law Sciences, Culturology and Study of Art, 2015, no. 10, pp. 98–101 (in Russian).
12. Jung C. G. The Transcendent Function. Collected Works Vol. 8, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1975. pp. 70–94 (Russ. ed.: Jung C. G. Transcendentalnaya funkciya. In: C. G. Jung. Sinkhronichnost': sb. Per. s angl. Moscow, Refl -buk; Kiev, Vakler, 1997, pp.11–41).
13. Krechetova M. Yu. The doctrine of I. Kant about the I in an empirical, moral and metaphysical sense. Tomsk State University Journal of Philosophy, Sociology and Political Science, 2014, no. 4 (28), pp. 308–317 (in Russian).