Izvestiya of Saratov University.
ISSN 1819-7671 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1948 (Online)


The Idea of Problematic and Eidetic Cognition

In the center of the analysis is the phenomenon of problematicity in the process of evolution of rational structures of cognition, acting as a universal demand that characterizes the cognitive process; the relationship between rational and irrational levels of mastering the world in the form of eidetic cognition. The principle of problematicity is considered in the context of solving problems of scientific activity.

The Problem of Intellects in Medieval Aristotelianism

The article deals with the problem of the role and significance of the “ladder of intellects” in Medieval Aristotelianism. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the decisive influence of the problem of intellects on the difference in the interpretation of the heritage of Aristotle in the Middle Ages, when Aristotle was understood as a theologian and the teacher of primary causes, and in the Modern era, when Aristotle was regarded as an empiricist, metaphysician and the founder of several sciences.

I. Kant and B. V. Rauschenbach on cognition and morality: The contact points

In the XXI century, the humanity continues to actively transform the world, technological progress puts rationalism in the first place as a worldview. Of course, the balance between rationalism and irrationalism in one time dimension and cultural space is difficult to achieve, each of these types periodically prevails and therefore has a specific impact on culture. At the same time, periods of changing cognitive and value orientations may be accompanied by crisis phenomena of a moral and ethical nature.