Cite this article as:

Ardashev R. G. The phenomenology of rational and irrational thinking. Izvestiya of Saratov University. Philosophy. Psychology. Pedagogy, 2021, vol. 21, iss. 2, pp. 120-124. DOI:

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0).

The phenomenology of rational and irrational thinking

This article examines the phenomenological structure of various types of thinking: rational, instrumental, irrational, magical, aesthetic, and ethical. The modalities of consciousness that determine the development of a particular way of thinking, as well as the conditions and forms of their disclosure in different social and cultural conditions of social reproduction are revealed. The author shows the significance and direction of development of the phenomenology of irrational thinking in the context of modern socio-political realities of Russia. For the first time, the article presents the phenomenological outline of the analysis of thinking and consciousness of contemporaries. The presented typology is considered through the prism of examples of socio-political and media events of our time, which make it possible to judge the legitimacy of using this technique and methodology in the study of various types of consciousness and thinking of contemporaries. The necessity of using the following analysis scheme is proved: transition from thought to action; the strategies of social action themselves; actors (leaders, experts, professionals), institutions (traditional, integrating, supporting this model); triggers of modality selection or transition from one to another modality. It is shown that individuals can be included in modalities through various strategies: passive perception and distance (withdrawal), construction (creation) and participation (support or criticism).

  1. Ardashev R. G. Irrationality of public consciousness. Gumanitarnyy vector [Humanitarian Vector], 2020, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 76–84 (in Russian).
  2. Ardashev R. G. Conspiracy theories in the public opinion of Russians. Missiya konfessiy [Mission of Confessions], 2020, vol. 9, no. 1 (42), pp. 145–154 (in Russian).
  3. Karmadonov O. A. Sotsiologiya simvola [Sociology of the Symbol]. Moscow, Akademiya Publ., 2004. 347 p. (in Russian).
  4. Karmadonov O. A., Kobzhitsky V. V. Transformatsiya i adaptatsiya: strategii vyzhivaniya v krizisnom sotsiume [Transformation and Adaptation: Strategies for Survival in a Crisis Society]. Irkutsk, Izdatel'stvo Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2009. 175 p. (in Russian).
  5. Kornilov Yu. K. Psikhologiya prakticheskogo myshleniya [Psychology of Practical Thinking]. Jaroslavl’, DIA-press Publ., 2000, 205 p. (in Russian).
  6. Jaroslav Yu. S. The phenomenology of the irrational in political thinking and the diversity of the logics of political action. Nauchnyy ezhegodnik Instituta fi losofi i i prava Uralskogo otdeleniya Rossiyskoy akademii nauk [Scientifi c Yearbook of the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences], 2015, vol. 15, iss. 4, pp. 67–106 (in Russian).
  7. Yudkowsky E. Rationality: From AI to Zombies. Berkeley, MIRI, 2015. 1775 p.
  8. Zhang L., Sternberg R. J., Rayner S., eds. Handbook of Intellectual Styles. Preferences in Cognition, Learning, and Thinking. New York, Springer, 2012. 430 p.
одобрено к публикации
Short Text (PDF): 

Generator XML for DOAJ

Не определено в Выпуске поле Опубликована онлайн:publicationDate