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Steklova I. V. The Idea of Problematic and Eidetic Cognition. Izvestiya Saratovskogo Universiteta. New seria. Seria Phylosophy. Psychology. Pedagogics, 2018, vol. 18, iss. 4, pp. 410-413. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/1819-7671-2018-18-4-410-413


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111
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Russian

The Idea of Problematic and Eidetic Cognition

In the center of the analysis is the phenomenon of problematicity in the process of evolution of rational structures of cognition, acting as a universal demand that characterizes the cognitive process; the relationship between rational and irrational levels of mastering the world in the form of eidetic cognition. The principle of problematicity is considered in the context of solving problems of scientific activity. The place of creativity in the idea of problematicity and the problematicity itself in the creative process within the framework of the phenomenological research program is determined. The creative act is presented as the most concentrated expression of the effective work of the components of the human thought system. Scientific creativity is explored as a situation in which the non-rational and rational are connected in a paradoxical way. It is argued that the methodology for the study of scientific knowledge, proposed in the framework of transcendental philosophy, is most adequate in analyzing ambiguous processes in science; that the problem of the ideal conditions for the possibility of science, set by E. Husserl, which differs from the objective-logical conditions, is a modification of the latter, belonging to the pure content of knowledge. Thanks to their modifications, knowledge becomes productive for criticizing scientific knowledge and for its logical normalization. In this case, the principle of problematicity leads to the resolution of contradictions between the rational and the sensory levels of cognition.

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