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Tetyuev L. I. Language-philosophy of Jurgen Habermas: Rational Theory of Universal Pragmatics. Izvestiya Saratovskogo Universiteta. New seria. Seria Phylosophy. Psychology. Pedagogics, 2019, vol. 19, iss. 2, pp. 171-175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/1819-7671-2019-19-2-171-175


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Language-philosophy of Jurgen Habermas: Rational Theory of Universal Pragmatics

The philosophy of language is the central motive of the social philosophy of J. Habermas. Language is perceived as a transcendental subject, which is able to act as the unifying basis of culture and overcome the existing isolation of the spheres of science, morality and art. The nature of the language is interpreted in hermeneutic manner as a “great conversation” that can recreate the universal conditions of a possible conception of the world. The article reveals the main idea of the philosopher that in the medium of language initial relations of individuality and intersubjectivity are formed. The understanding procedure is defined as a communicative universal pragmatics, the basis of which is the commonality of mutual understanding, mutual trust and recognition. The method of rational reconstruction contributes to the disclosure of the communicative foundations of universal pragmatics, and is based on the general abilities of a native speaker – skills and knowledge. In the philosophy of language of J. Habermas, the dual structure of the elementary speech act, which includes performative statement and proposition, is especially recognized. The performative mode of communication expresses intersubjective relations, while the proposition defines the area of the subject matter of speech itself. Every judgment contains a propositional content and an illocutive aspect. Illocutive understanding leads to mutual understanding, and these connections determine a pragmatic way of relation to the world.

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