Cite this article as:

Mikhel D. V. Illness as a Social Diagnose: Philosophy of Social Exclusion and Reintegration. Izvestiya of Saratov University. Philosophy. Psychology. Pedagogy, 2017, vol. 17, iss. 2, pp. 156-?. DOI:

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0).

Illness as a Social Diagnose: Philosophy of Social Exclusion and Reintegration

The aim of the article is to analyze the problems of the illness in the socio-cultural aspect. The illness is not only a pathological condition of the organism, but also a moral shock and social drama. Throughout human history took place the evolution of the nature of the major diseases that threaten human health and forms of social reactions to them. The social response to the illness in primitive societies of hunters and gatherers was to unite all social group around the ill. In complex societies, from the agrarian to the industrial, due to the emergence of so-called “new diseases” were not only more effective healing system, but also a special narrow-minded philosophy of social exclusion and spiritual reintegration. This type of philosophy is an important mental characteristic of complex societies, to ensure their survival in the face of inexplicable danger. Unlike the primitive clan, with its shared responsibility for every human, complex modern society, where people are no longer able to share any common values or a common destiny, need other remedies. A case of leprosy showed that the perception of some illnesses can take the form of social diagnosis, and this type of perception continues to reproduce at the present.


1. Helman C. C. Culture, health and illness. 5th ed. London, 2007. 501 p.

2. Dunn F. Health and disease in hunter-gatherers: epidemiological factors. Culture, disease, and healing: studies in medical anthropology. Ed. by D. Landy. New York, 1977, pp. 99–107.

3. Lewis G. Concepts of health and illness in a Sepik society. Concepts of health, illness and disease: a comparative perspective. Eds. C. Currer, M. Stacy. Oxford, 1986, pp. 119–135.

4. Fabrega H. Evolution of sickness and healing. Berkeley, 1997. 364 p.

5. Winkelman M. Shamanism: a biopsychosocial paradigm of consciousness and healing. 2nd ed. Santa Barbara, Ca., 2010. 309 p.

6. McNeill W. H. Plagues and peoples. New York, 1976. 365 p.

7. Kleinman A. Patients and healers in the context of culture: an exploration of the borderland between anthropology, medicine and psychiatry. Berkeley, 1980. 427 p.

8. Kleinman A. Concepts and a model for the comparison of medical systems as cultural systems. Social science and medicine, 1978, vol. 12 (1), pp. 85–93.

9. Hays J. N. The burdens of disease: epidemics and human response in Western history. New Brunswick, NJ, 2000. 361 p.

10. Dols M. W. Leprosy in medieval Arabic medicine. Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences, 1979, vol. 36 (4), pp. 314–333.

11. Gussow Z. Behavioral research in chronic disease: a study of leprosy. Journal of chronic diseases, 1964, vol. 17 (2), pp. 179–189.

12. Foucault M. Madness and civilization: a history of insanity in the age of reason. New York, 1988. 299 p.

13. Brody S. N. The disease of soul: leprosy in medieval literature. Ithaca, 1974. 223 p.

14. Brandt A. M. Acquired Immune Defi ciency Syndrome. The Cambridge World History of Human Disease. Ed. by K. F. Kiple. Cambridge, 1993. P. 547–551.

одобрено к публикации
Short Text (PDF): 
Full Text (PDF): 

Generator XML for DOAJ

Не определено в Выпуске поле Опубликована онлайн:publicationDate